Новый тренировочный (типовой) вариант для подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку 2020. Экзаменационная работа по английскому языку состоит из четырёх разделов («Аудирование», «Чтение», «Грамматика и лексика», «Письмо»), включающих в себя 40 заданий. На выполнение экзаменационной работы отводится 3 часа (180 минут).
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10. Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. PARTY DESSERT
2. OUTDOOR GAME
3. TAKING CARE OF A PET
4. COLLECTING THINGS
5. GIVING A PARTY
6. PARTY ANIMALS
7. FUN ON THE WAY
8. PARTY GAME
A. Ask your parents or permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.
B. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk
around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy. C. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour. D. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.
E. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.
F. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover. G. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке
1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
Students’ social skills flourish best in groups with similar skill levels Research shows that the behavior of the people you most spend time with can affect your own behavior, A_______________________. Now, researchers at the
University of Missouri have found that children who need assistance improving their social skills might benefit more when grouped with peers B_______________________, rather than with peers who have a similar disability
or disorder. «We know that how you group children together in an intervention situation matters immensely,» said Janine Stichter, professor of special education at the MU College of Education. «However, we have to consider C_______________________ than others and create the best positive behavior outcomes.» Stichter and her team worked with nearly 300 students with varying social disorders across 34 middle schools to test D_______________________ more
effective. Current practices are often ineffective, she says, because children are conveniently grouped together E_______________________ .Stichter found that grouping F_______________________ is less successful at creating positive behavior changes than grouping children by similar social abilities.
1. who have similar social skill levels
2. by disability or disorder
3. for better or worse
4. that need to be corrected
5. what conditions make group-based social interventions
6. by matching class schedules or similar disorders
7. what types of groups work better
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
The idea that life did not originate on Earth, but was carried here either deliberately or by natural processes, has its roots at least as far back as the ancient Greeks. This idea, often referred to as panspermia, took on a scientific form in the work of various nineteenth-century authors. It later gained widespread popular appeal through the work of the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius, who argued that spores of life could survive in space and travel between star systems through the pressure of solar radiation. The panspermia hypothesis eventually fell out of favor for a variety of reasons. Skeptics pointed out that microorganisms could not possibly survive the damage caused by ultraviolet radiation and cosmic rays while being propelled out of a solar system away from a star. Indeed, it was unclear how biological material could escape from a planet by natural processes in the first place. If unprotected, the molecules of life would quickly be destroyed by radiation near the ejecting planet. Furthermore, it was not clear how microorganisms, having made a journey across the huge distances of interstellar space, could have safely descended to the surface of the Earth or any other planet. Arrhenius himself argued that organisms caught inside meteorites would be subjected to incandescent* temperatures while entering the atmosphere of a terrestrial body. Such heat would destroy any life-forms lucky enough to have survived to this point. Despite the seeming implausibility* of the panspermia hypothesis, some theorists have resurrected the notion in recent decades since laboratory research has shown that many of the objections to the hypothesis can be overcome. Scientists have shown that microorganisms protected from radiation by grains of material could be ejected from a solar system if the repulsive force (p) of the ejecting star is greater than the attractive force (g) of the star’s gravity. Such ejecting stars cannot be too luminous since brighter stars emit too much ultraviolet radiation for the survival of bacteria. Organisms can only enter new solar systems whose stars’ p/g ratio is low, thus allowing the gravity to pull the microbes into the planetary orbits. According to some researchers, material ejected from a planetary system could also eventually become part of an interstellar molecular cloud, which eventually produces a new planetary system as well as a large number of comets. Comets can retain microorganisms protected by other material and water, and impact onto new planets, which by then would have cooled sufficiently for the life in the grains to take hold. Further supporting evidence about the likelihood of survival of bacteria traveling through space and entering a planetary atmosphere has been gained from studies of a meteorite of Martian origin found in Antarctica in 1984. Whether or not the meteorite contains fossils of Martian bacteria (and many researchers now seem to reject this possibility), microscopic studies of its internal structure have shown that the interior was not heated to more than 40 degrees Celsius since before leaving the Martian surface. In other words, neither the original impact that must have ejected the rock away from the Martian surface nor the heat generated by its entry into the Earth’s atmosphere did, in fact, melt or vaporize the internal portions of the meteorite. So it is quite possible that any life-form that had undergone such a trip would survive. As for the long journey itself, experiments aboard a European Space Agency mission have shown that bacterial spores can survive in deep space for at least five years. This is sufficient time for viable interplanetary travel, although not, of course, for interstellar travel. Today, the panspermia hypothesis is being regarded with less skepticism than formerly. Although the orthodox view is still that life evolved on Earth (and possibly other planets in the universe) without extraterrestrial input, more and
more research is pointing to the feasibility of some form of interstellar «seeding». Wickramasinghe and Hoyle, who championed the hypothesis of the interstellar transmission of life during the 1970s, argued persuasively that prebiotic chemicals have been shown to exist by remote sensing data of Comet Halley. Furthermore, they point out that evidence for viable microorganisms existing in comets could be attained in the near future if unmanned space missions could capture and return to Earth with cometary material.
12. Early supporters of the panspermia hypothesis
1) rejected the main elements of the hypothesis.
2) argued that some primitive life has been detected on a comet.
3) pointed out that space missions will find life elsewhere.
4) suggested that the «seeds» of life may have been deliberately planted.
13. The word propelled in the passage is closest in meaning to
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